Borkov Aleksandr Vasil'evich, Doctor of historical sciences, professor, head of sub-department of basic Russian foreign policy and security, Nizhniy Novgorod State University named after N. I. Lobachevsky (23 Gagarina avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Ilyin Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Postgraduate student, Nizhniy Novgorod State Pedagogical University named after K. Minin (1 Ulyanova street, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), email@example.com
Background. The acute modern international situation in the Black Sea region causes a need of studying the historical experience in solving a question of exploiting the Black Sea passages during 1917–1923. For this purpose the authors investigated the foreign policy and diplomatic negotiations of such active participants of the process of this problem discussion as the Soviet Russia and Turkey. The researchers considered the role of Turkey in the course of preparation and carrying out of the Lausanne international conference, and also participation of the Soviet diplomacy in its work. The purpose of the article is to analyse development of the Soviet-Turkish relations in the first years of the Soviet power, to define their character, and also to track their influence on the solution of a question of the international mode of functioning of the Bosphorus and Dardanelless Straits.
Materials and methods. Realization of the research tasks was achieved through studying of the published documents of the Soviet foreign policy of the specified period, in particular, of the text of the Soviet-Turkish contract “About the Brotherhood and Cooperation” of 1921, the analysis of the content of “The convention on the Black Sea passages” 1923, examining the memoirs and scientific literature. The methodological potential includes, first of all, the comparative historical method which allows to compare the characteristic of various aspects of foreign policy of Turkey and the Soviet Russia in 1917–1923 on the straits topic.
Results. The authors investigated the internal and external factors influencing development of the Soviet-Turkish relations in the first years of the Soviet power, analyzed the offers by two states concerning the status of the Black Sea passages exploitation before the Lausanne international conference and during the international forum. The researchers pointed out the international principle of definition, remaining since the XIX century, of the mode of the Passages exploitation with active participation of the leading European powers which didn't have any access to the Black Sea.
Conclusions. Studying of the course of discussion concerning the straits within the Soviet-Turkish relations of 1917–1923 allows to draw a conclusion that, first, in formation of the Soviet position on the problem of using the Bosphorus and Dardanelless Straits the continuity with views of the Russian Empire diplomacy was observed, secondly, the principle of passages closing, which was defended by the Soviet delegation during the negotiations at the Lausanne conference, fully corresponded to the national interests of the young Soviet state.
the Black Sea Straits, Soviet diplomacy, Soviet-Turkish relations, the Lausanne Conference, the Convention on the regime of the Straits, 1923.
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